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Understanding Cyberattacks: Everything You Need to Know

Alekh Verma | February 7, 2023

Considering how reliant the world is on the internet, it has become a soft spot for all kinds of cybercrimes. In addition to gathering, processing, and storing unheard-of volumes of data in cyberspace, the government, military, academia, health care sector, and business sector also depend on these systems for carrying out tasks and providing services. An attack on this infrastructure might endanger not only consumer information, but also the security, economy, public safety, and health of an entire country.

Given its significance, we have put together this comprehensive article about cybersecurity. In the sections below, we'll discuss cybersecurity in more detail and how to defend your systems and data from threats.

What is Cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity is the process of protecting information, hardware, software, networks, and systems from intrusions. These assaults, often referred to as cyber-attacks, are created to take advantage of weaknesses in a person's or an organization's system in order to control, disrupt, disable, or destroy its data or infrastructure. The goal of this field is to stop and prevent attacks that could lead to interruptions in regular business operations, data loss, unauthorized access and modification, data theft and leaking, money laundering, and extortion.

The large field of cybersecurity has numerous subfields, each of which is used to protect different components of the IT ecosystem. The security of key infrastructure, networks, clouds, endpoints, the Internet of Things (IoT), serverless applications, APIs, and Kubernetes is a notable field.

A company's cybersecurity strategy combines technology like network monitoring and endpoint detection and response with security paradigms like defense in depth and zero trust (EDR). Malicious software (malware), zero-day attacks, and phishing scams are just a few of the risks that organizations may protect themselves against by using cybersecurity tools and procedures.

Multiple layers of security must be in place to protect an enterprise's data, devices, applications, networks, and systems. Efficient protection against ever evolving and expanding cyber threats can be created by combining technology and best practices. They include dangers including code injections, malware, ransomware, and phishing. The impact may vary according to how extensive the attack is. Through a cyber assault, a person's credit card information might be used for fraudulent transactions, or malware could be injected into a company's source code to wipe out the entire system.

Even the most effective cybersecurity cannot completely prevent all assaults or attack types, but it can reduce their risks and negative effects.

Why You Must Care About Cybersecurity

Over 37 billion records were exposed in 3,932 data breaches disclosed in 2020, according to research by RiskBased Security. In addition, a recent study determined that in 2020, the average global cost of a data breach was 3.86 million dollars. In other words, the price of data breaches last year was almost $15.2 billion. Thus, small and medium-sized companies (SMBs) are particularly vulnerable.

The reason why most cyber attackers go for target SMBs is that they are less secure than larger enterprise-level organizations yet have more valuable digital assets than the average consumer puts directly under the attack zone.

Both businesses and consumers find security breaches to be inconvenient and alarming. In a Measure Protocol study, about 86% of participants reported that recent privacy scandals in the press have at least somewhat impacted their willingness to give personal information. But cybersecurity involves more than just avoiding a public relations disaster. Building customer trust through cybersecurity investment. As consumers support your brand, it promotes openness and lessens friction.

Types of Cybersecurity

·     Application Security

The process of creating, integrating, and testing security measures within online applications in order to defend them against attacks is known as application security, or AppSec. Exploiting vulnerabilities, security flaws, and design defects can expose sensitive data, inject malicious code, infiltrate systems, and have other detrimental effects.

And because the application layer is the most vulnerable, app security is one of the most crucial types of cybersecurity. Nearly half of data breaches, according to research by Imperva, started at the web application layer.

·     Cloud Security

A more recent subset of cybersecurity is cloud security. It is the discipline of safeguarding cloud computing infrastructures, together with any programs that operate there, and any data kept there.

Cloud service providers have security policies and features in place because they host third-party apps, services, and data on their servers; nevertheless, clients are also partially accountable and required to configure their cloud service appropriately and use it responsibly.

·     Security for Critical Infrastructure

Protecting a country's or a region's essential infrastructure is known as critical infrastructure security. The networks, systems, and resources that ensure physical and economic security, as well as public health and safety, are included in this infrastructure. Consider a region's water supply, hospitals, traffic signals, and electrical grid as examples.

This infrastructure is largely digital or depends in some manner on the internet to operate. Therefore, it needs to be secured because it is vulnerable to cyberattacks.

·     Security for the Internet of Things (IoT)

IoT security, or "Internet of Things" security, is the process of securing almost any connected device that may communicate with the network without the intervention of a human. This includes the billions of other devices—baby monitors, printers, security cameras, motion sensors—as well as the networks to which they are linked.

IoT devices must be protected against unauthorized access and other threats since they gather and store sensitive personal data, such as a person's name, age, location, and health information.

·     Network Protection

Protecting computer networks and data from internal and external dangers is the practice of network security. Firewalls, virtual private networks, and two-factor authentication are examples of the identity and access controls that can be useful.

Physical, technological, and administrative security are the three subcategories that are generally used to classify network security. Each of these varieties of network security aims to restrict access to network elements (such as routers), data that is stored on or sent through the network, and the network's physical architecture.

Understanding Cybersecurity Terms

Similar to cryptocurrencies and AI, cybersecurity is a tremendously daunting subject. It can be confusing, and to be honest, it sounds somewhat menacing and complex.

But don't worry. We're here to dissect this subject into manageable chunks that you can reassemble into your own cybersecurity plan. Keep this helpful glossary close at hand by saving this post to your bookmarks.

Listed below is a complete glossary of terminology related to cybersecurity in general.

·     Authentication

Verifying your identity is the procedure of authentication. Your passwords serve as proof that you are the rightful owner of the relevant username. The fact that your photo generally resembles you on your ID (such as a driver's license) serves as verification that the name, age, and address shown there are accurate for you. We will discuss two-factor authentication, which is used by many enterprises.

·     Backup

The act of moving crucial data to a safe location, such as a cloud storage system or an external hard drive, is referred to as a backup. In the event of a cyberattack or system crash, backups allow you to restore your systems to a functioning state.

·     Behavior Observation

Observing user and device behavior on your network in order to spot any potential security events early on is called behavior monitoring. It is necessary to measure activities both against baselines of typical behavior, trends, and organizational regulations and rules and in comparison, to those baselines.

For instance, you might keep an eye on and track user login and logout times, if they ask to access sensitive resources, and the websites they visit. Consider the case where a user tries to log in at an odd hour, like the middle of the night. In that situation, if you suspect an attack, you may recognize that as strange behavior, look into it as a possible security event, and eventually stop that log-in attempt.

·     Bot

Bots, which stand for robots, are programs or scripts created to carry out automatic and repetitive operations. Some bots serve useful functions, such as chatbots that respond to frequently asked inquiries on a website. Others are employed for evil intent, such as spam email distribution or DDoS attacks. It is becoming more difficult to distinguish between good and harmful bots as well as between bots and human users as bots get more intelligent. Bots are an increasing threat to many people and businesses because of this.

·     Breach of data

A data breach occurs when a hacker obtains unapproved access to a person's or a company's data.

·     Electronic Certificate

A sort of passcode used to securely send data over the internet is a digital certificate, commonly referred to as an identity certificate or public key certificate. It is essentially a digital file embedded in hardware that performs authentication whenever data is delivered to and received from a server or other device.

·     Encryption

Data encryption is the process of encrypting data using codes and ciphers. Data is encrypted when it is converted into nonsensical nonsense by a computer using a key. The data is encrypted, and only a recipient with the right key may decrypt it. Strong encryption prevents a hacker who has access to the data but lacks the key from viewing the unencrypted version.

·     HTTP/S and HTTP

Internet browsers communicate using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The websites you visit will likely have an https:// or https:// in front of them. The only difference between HTTP and HTTPS is that HTTPS encrypts all data exchanged between your computer and the web server, therefore the "S" for security. To improve the privacy of your data, almost all websites today employ HTTPS, similar to the free SSL offered by the free CMS hub.

·     Vulnerability

When executing a cyber assault, a hacker may take advantage of a vulnerability. Software problems that need to be fixed or password reset procedures that can be started by unauthorized users are two examples of vulnerabilities. By placing additional layers of security between attackers and the things they are attempting to do or access, defensive cybersecurity measures (such as the ones we discuss later) help ensure that data is safeguarded.

Types of Cyberattacks

A cyber-attack is a planned, intentional attempt to obtain, alter, or destroy private data. External security hackers and occasionally unintentionally compromised users or employees carry out cyber-attacks. There are many different motives behind these cyberattacks. While some are simply launched for fun, others are searching for ransom.

We'll cover the most prevalent cyber risks in brief below.

1.  A brute force password guessing attack

An attack known as "credential stuffing" or password guessing occurs when an attacker repeatedly tries to guess usernames and passwords. Known username and password combinations from previous data breaches will frequently be used in this attack.

When people utilize insecure passwords or reuse the same password across many systems, an attacker is successful (e.g., when your Facebook and Twitter passwords are the same, etc.). Using two-factor authentication, which we'll discuss later, together with strong passwords and avoiding using the same password many times are your best defenses against this type of attack.)

2.  Attacks that Cause Distributed Denial of Service

In a distributed denial of service (DDoS) assault, a hacker overwhelms a system or network with a lot of activity (such as messages, requests, or web traffic) to bring it to a standstill.

This is frequently accomplished through botnets, which are collections of internet-connected devices (such as laptops, light bulbs, game consoles, servers, etc.) that have been infected with viruses that enable hackers to utilize them for a variety of attacks.

3.  Malware Attack

All harmful software used by hackers to access networks and computers and steal sensitive personal data is referred to as malware. Malware comes in a variety of forms, including:

  • Keyloggers, which record every keystroke made on a keyboard. Keyloggers are frequently employed to record passwords and other sensitive data, including social security numbers.
  • Data is held hostage by ransomware, which encrypts it and demands a fee from users in order to release the data.
  • Spyware is software that keeps track of and "spies" on user behavior on behalf of hackers.

Malware can also be distributed using:

  • Trojan horses are malicious software programs that enter systems through an innocent-looking entry point and frequently seem to be trustworthy programs or other pieces of software.
  • Viruses, can physically harm computers and corrupt, destroy, change, or capture data. Viruses can propagate from one computer to another when they are mistakenly loaded by vulnerable users.
  • Worms are created to replicate themselves and spread autonomously among any linked computers that are vulnerable to the same flaws.

4.  Attack via Phishing

Hackers who attempt to deceive users into taking action are known as phishers. Phishing scams can be sent via a download, link, or communication that appears to be trustworthy.

A third-party poll found that 57% of respondents stated their firm had had a successful phishing assault in 2020, up from 55% in 2019. This indicates that it is a relatively common sort of cyber-attack. Additionally, successful phishing attempts can result in everything from data theft to financial loss.

Phishing, also known as spoofing, is often carried out by email or on a bogus website. Spear phishing is another term for when a hacker targets a specific person or business by, for example, stealing their identity rather than making spam that is more broadly applicable.

5.  Attack by a Man-in-the-Middle (MitM)

When an attacker intervenes in a communication or transaction between two parties, it is known as a "Man-in-the-Middle" (MitM) attack. Before the data reaches its intended target, the attacker can intercept, alter, and steal it. Consider the scenario where a visitor is utilizing a gadget on unsecured public Wi-Fi. In order to intercept login credentials, credit card information, and other data, an attacker might take advantage of this vulnerability and place their device in between the visitor's device and the network.

Because the target is unaware that there is a "man in the middle," this kind of cyber assault is particularly effective. They simply appear to be using their bank app, browsing the web, and doing other online activities.

6.  Attack using cross-site scripting

A cross-site scripting attack, often known as an XSS attack, occurs when an attacker inserts malicious code into a website or application that is otherwise trustworthy to have that code run in a different user's web browser.

That browser will run the code and provide information to the attacker because it believes the code is coming from a reliable source. A session token, cookie, login information, or other personal data could be included in this information.

7.  Attack via SQL Injection

In a SQL injection attack, malicious code is entered into an unprotected form or search box by the attacker to examine and manipulate the website's database. Hackers may create new accounts on your website, add unauthorized links and content, alter or delete data, and more using SQL, often known as Structured Query Language.

Since SQL is WordPress' main language for database management, this is a prevalent security problem.

Best Practices for Cybersecurity: Protecting Your Data

It is impossible to reduce cybersecurity to a simple, three-step process. A combination of best practices and defensive cybersecurity measures is used to secure your data. The best method to secure your data and the data of your customers is to dedicate time and resources to both.

Solutions for Defensive Cybersecurity

Investments in proactive cybersecurity solutions should be made by all enterprises. Your network and computers will be protected from external threats if these solutions are implemented, and proper cybersecurity practices are adopted (which we'll cover next).

Here is a list of five cybersecurity defense systems and software choices that can stop cyberattacks and the ensuing headaches. For comprehensive digital protection, think about combining these options.

  • Antivirus Programs

The digital equivalent of taking vitamin C during flu season is antivirus software. It keeps an eye out for bugs as a precautionary strategy. Antivirus software's role is to find and eliminate viruses from your computer, much like vitamin C does when harmful substances enter your immune system. (Said with the authority of a true medical expert...) Additionally, antivirus software warns you about potentially dangerous software and websites.

  • Firewall

A firewall is a virtual wall that prevents harmful individuals and programs from accessing your computer. It employs a filter that evaluates the legitimacy and safety of every request to access your computer; it functions as an unseen judge standing between you and the internet. Firewalls can be hardware- or software-based.

  • Spend money on threat detection and mitigation

It's crucial to include a tool to scan and detect vulnerabilities whether you're using the CMS Hub or a popular website hosting provider like WordPress. The majority of content management systems have platform-based malware scanning and threat detection features. But you should buy a security scanner if you utilize platforms like WordPress.

  • Single sign-on (SSO)

A whole platform of accounts and applications can be accessed using a single login thanks to single sign-on (SSO), a centralized authentication solution. You have utilized SSO if you have ever signed up for or logged into an account using your Google account. SSO is a tool used by businesses and corporations to give staff members access to internal applications that contain confidential information.

  • Using two-factor authentication (2FA)

A username or PIN and access to an external device or account, such as an email address, phone number, or security software, are required during the two-factor authentication (2FA) login process. 2FA is significantly more secure than single-factor authentication since users must verify their identity using both.

  • Virtual Private Network (VPN)

Your data enters and exits a web server through a "tunnel" created by a virtual private network (VPN). Your data is encrypted and safeguarded in that tunnel so that hackers and harmful software cannot access it or spy on you. A VPN can prevent spyware from entering your computer, but it cannot stop viruses from doing the same through channels that appear to be trustworthy, such as phishing or even a phony VPN link. As a result, in order to safeguard your data, VPNs should be used in conjunction with other defensive cybersecurity measures.

Business Cybersecurity Tips

If you don't, defensive cybersecurity solutions won't function. Adopt these sound cybersecurity practices throughout your organization to protect your company's information and that of your clients.

  • Solid credentials are necessary.

Demand that all of your users and workers (if applicable) create secure passwords. This can be accomplished by setting a minimum number of characters and mandating a combination of capital and lowercase letters, numerals, and symbols. Both humans and algorithms find it more difficult to guess passwords that are more complex. Moreover, mandate frequent password changes.

  • Control and keep an eye on staff behavior.

Only allow authorized personnel that require vital data for their jobs to access within your company. Limit the sharing of company data with third parties, demand authorization before downloading third-party software, and advise staff to lock their computers and accounts when not in use.

  • Understand your network.

As the Internet of Things grows, IoT devices are proliferating on business networks like weeds. These unmanaged devices pose a concern because they frequently run weak software that can be exploited by hackers and provide a direct line of access to an internal network.

  • Regularly download patches and updates.

Updates from software providers that address, and repair vulnerabilities are frequently released. Update your program frequently to keep it secure. To ensure you never forget, think about setting up your program to update itself automatically.

  • Make it simple for workers to escalate problems.

You want to know right away if your employee encounters a phishing email or a compromised website. Create a method for accepting these complaints from staff members by designating an inbox for them or constructing a form that they can use.

Advice on Cybersecurity for Individuals

You, as an individual user of the internet and a consumer, might be impacted by cyber dangers. Adopt these virtuous behaviors to safeguard your private information and fend against online threats.

  • Use different passwords.

The equivalent of keeping a spare key under your front doormat digitally is using the same password for all of your significant accounts. According to a recent survey, passwords that were either weak or stolen were to blame for over 80% of data breaches. Even if a software or company account doesn't need a strong password, always pick a password that combines letters, numbers, and symbols, and change it frequently.

  • Regularly check your credit and bank accounts.

Regularly review your credit reports, statements, and other important data, and report any questionable behavior. Additionally, only divulge your social security number under dire circumstances.

  • Online, be deliberate.

Watch out for fraudulent downloads and phishing emails. A website or link is fishy if it appears fishy. Watch out for poor grammar and spelling, shady URLs, and incorrect email addresses. Finally, install antivirus and security programs to warn you of known and prospective malware sources.

  • Maintain regular data backups.

Both organizations and individuals should develop this habit because both parties' data can be jeopardized. Think about creating backups on the cloud as well as offline devices like hard drives and thumb drives.


Although cyberattacks might be frightening, learning about cybersecurity doesn't have to be. It is crucial to be ready and equipped, especially if you are handling the data of others. Businesses should spend time and money protecting their computers, servers, networks, and software, and they should keep up with new technological developments. Careful data handling only increases your company's credibility and openness, as well as the loyalty of your consumers.

Alekh Verma

CEO and Founder at eSearch Logix Technologies!

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